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加长非标柔性防水套管
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加长非标柔(rou)性防水套管(guan)
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加长非标(biao)柔性防水套管

加长(zhang)非标柔性防水套管焊(han)接(jie)气(qi)孔是(shi)指焊(han)接(jie)时,熔(rong)池中的(de)气(qi)体(ti)未在(zai)金属凝固(gu)前逸出,残存于(yu)焊(han)缝之中所形(xing)成(cheng)的(de)空穴。其气(qi)体(ti)可(ke)能(neng)是(shi)熔(rong)池从外界吸(xi)收(shou)的(de),也可(ke)能(neng)是(shi)焊(han)接(jie)冶金过程(cheng)中反应生成(cheng)的(de)。

(1) 柔(rou)性防水套管焊接气孔的分类

气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)从(cong)(cong)其形状(zhuang)(zhuang)上分,有(you)球状(zhuang)(zhuang)气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)、条虫状(zhuang)(zhuang)气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong);从(cong)(cong)数量上可分为单个(ge)气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)和群状(zhuang)(zhuang)气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)。群状(zhuang)(zhuang)气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)又有(you)均匀分布气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong),密集状(zhuang)(zhuang)气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)和链状(zhuang)(zhuang)分布气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)之分。按气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)内气(qi)(qi)体(ti)成分分类,有(you)氢气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)、氮气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)、二氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)碳气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)、一氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)碳气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)、氧(yang)(yang)气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)等。熔焊(han)气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)多为氢气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)和一氧(yang)(yang)化(hua)(hua)碳气(qi)(qi)孔(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)。

(2) 柔(rou)性防水套管焊接气孔(kong)的形成(cheng)机理

常温固(gu)态金(jin)属(shu)中气体(ti)的(de)溶解(jie)(jie)度只有(you)高(gao)温液态金(jin)属(shu)中气体(ti)溶解(jie)(jie)度的(de)几(ji)十分之一(yi)至(zhi)几(ji)百分之一(yi),熔(rong)池金(jin)属(shu)在凝固(gu)过程中,有(you)大(da)量(liang)的(de)气体(ti)要从金(jin)属(shu)中逸出(chu)来。当(dang)凝固(gu)速度大(da)于气体(ti)逸出(chu)速度时,就形成气孔。

(3) 柔性防水套管焊接产生气孔的主(zhu)要原因(yin)

母材(cai)或填充(chong)金属(shu)表面有锈、油污等,焊(han)(han)条及焊(han)(han)剂未烘干会增(zeng)加(jia)气(qi)孔量(liang),因(yin)为(wei)锈、油污及焊(han)(han)条药皮(pi)、焊(han)(han)剂中的水分(fen)在(zai)高温下(xia)分(fen)解为(wei)气(qi)体,增(zeng)加(jia)了高温金属(shu)中气(qi)体的含量(liang)。焊(han)(han)接(jie)线能量(liang)过(guo)小,熔池冷却速度大(da),不利于气(qi)体逸出。焊(han)(han)缝(feng)金属(shu)脱氧不足也会增(zeng)加(jia)氧气(qi)孔。

(4) 柔性防水套管(guan)焊接气孔(kong)的危害

柔(rou)性防水(shui)套管焊(han)接(jie)气孔减少(shao)了(le)焊(han)缝的(de)(de)有效(xiao)截面积,使焊(han)缝疏松(song),从而(er)降(jiang)低(di)了(le)接(jie)头的(de)(de)强(qiang)度,降(jiang)低(di)塑性,还会(hui)引起泄漏。气孔也是(shi)引起应力(li)集(ji)中的(de)(de)因(yin)素。氢气孔还可能促成冷裂纹。

(5) 加长非标柔性防水套管防止(zhi)气孔的(de)措施(shi)

a. 清除焊丝,工作坡(po)口(kou)及(ji)其附(fu)近(jin)表面的油污、铁锈(xiu)、水(shui)分(fen)和(he)杂(za)物。

b. 采用碱性焊(han)条、焊(han)剂,并彻底烘干。

c. 采用(yong)直流反接并用(yong)短电弧(hu)施焊。

d. 焊前预热,减(jian)缓冷(leng)却速度(du)。

e. 用偏强的规范施焊。


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